What is stroke volume?

The stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood (mL) ejected per heartbeat by the LV into the aorta (or from the RV into the pulmonary artery) assuming that all the blood leaving the ventricle is ejected into the outflow…

Cardiac function

CO = SV × HR Where:Cardiac output = CO (mL/minute or liters/minute)Stroke volume = SV (mL/beat)Heart rate = HR (beat/minute) resting cardiac output differs among individuals of different size cardiac output is often expressed as a flow (L/min) per body…

Extracorporeal life support

Extracorporeal life support is an overarching term for support with gas exchange, intended to support the failing heart or lungs, for short-term or medium-term use. It includes VA-ECMO, VV-ECMO, and extracorporeal carbon dioxide (CO2) removal.

Venoarterial ECMO

VA-ECMO is a form of extracorporeal life support where blood is withdrawn from the venous system and then infused into the arterial system to provide partial or complete circulatory or cardiac support; respiratory support by VA-ECMO can be adequate or…

Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 patients

Definition of cardiac involvement in COVID19 is challenging: SARS-CoV-2 infection has multifaceted effects From a clinical point of view, cardiac involvement during COVID19 may present a wide spectrum of severity, ranging from subclinical myocardial injury to well-defined clinical entities Three…

Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Typical symptoms: dyspnea, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, fatigue, reduced exercise tolerance, ankle swelling Less typical symptoms: cough, abdominal distension, wheeze, abdominal bloating, early satiety, bendopnea More specific signs: elevated jugular venous pressure, positive abdominojugular reflux, S3 (gallop…

Heart failure

OVERVIEW Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome characterized by dyspnea or exertional limitation due to impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood, or a combination of both Carries significant morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart…